School start time review

Most of the studies listed below are available through the school’s licensed research databases.  These services are protected by a username and password for use by any esquimalt student.  Please contact Esquimalt High School’s teacher-librarian, Geoff Orme, for help accessing or using these services.

Adolescent sleep and school day start times:

Borlase, B. J., Gander, P. H., & Gibson, R. H. (2013). Effects of school start times and technology use on teenagers’ sleep: 1999-2008. Sleep & Biological Rhythms, 11(1), 46-54. doi:10.1111/sbr.12003

Committee on Adolescence, and Council on School Health: Adolescent Sleep Working Group (2014).  School start times for adolescents. American Academy of Pediatrics. Pediatrics 2014;134;642; originally published online August 25, 2014; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2014-1697

Hansen, M., Janssen, I., Schiff, A., Zee, P. C., & Dubocovich, M. L. (2005). The impact of school daily schedule on adolescent sleepPediatrics, 115(6), 1555-1561. doi:10.1542/peds.2004-1649

Lindsey, T. (2010). Starting school day half-hour later shows big gains for tired teens in Rhode Island study. Canadian Press, The, FREE ACCESS.

McGeorge, D. (2012, July). Sleepless in America : School start times. Education & Health. pp. 57-59. FREE ACCESS.

Wolfson, A. R., Spaulding, N. L., Dandrow, C., & Baroni, E. M. (2007). Middle school start times: The importance of a good night’s sleep for young adolescents. Behavioral Sleep Medicine, 5(3), 194-209. doi:10.1080/15402000701263809

Vedaa, Ø., West Saxvig, I., Wilhelmsen-Langeland, A., Bjorvatn, B., & Pallesen, S. (2012). School start time, sleepiness and functioning in Norwegian adolescents. Scandinavian Journal Of Educational Research, 56(1), 55-67. doi:10.1080/00313831.2011.567396

Wahlstrom, K., Davison, M., Choi, J., & Ross, J. (2001). Minneapolis public schools start time study. University of Minnesota, Center for Applied Research and Educational Improvement.

Wahlstrom K, Dretzke B, Gordon M, Peterson K, Edwards K, Gdula J. Examining the Impact of Later School Start Times on the Health and Academic Performance of High School Students: A Multi-Site Study. Center for Applied Research and Educational Improvement. St Paul, MN: University of Minnesota; 2014

Wolfson, A. R., & Carskadon, M. A. (2005). Meeting teen sleep needs creatively. Education Digest, 71(1), 47-51.

Physicians, biological and social scientists on the timing of education 

Adolescent sleep, challenges and impacts on academic performance:

Bergin, C. A., & Bergin, D. A. (2009). Sleep: The E-Z Z Z Intervention. Educational Leadership, 67(4), 44-47.

Dewald-Kaufmann, J. F., Oort, F. J., Bögels, S. M., & Meijer, A. M. (2013). Why sleep matters: Differences in daytime functioning between adolescents with low and high chronic sleep reduction and short and long sleep durations. Journal Of Cognitive & Behavioral Psychotherapies, 13(1a), 171-182.

Gibson, E. S., Powles, A. P., Thabane, L., O’Brien, S., Molnar, D. S., Trajanovic, N., & … Chilcott-Tanser, L. (2006). “Sleepiness” is serious in adolescence: Two surveys of 3235 Canadian students. BMC Public Health, 6116-9. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-6-116

Langberg, J. M., Dvorsky, M. R., Marshall, S., & Evans, S. W. (2013). Clinical implications of daytime sleepiness for the academic performance of middle school-aged adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal Of Sleep Research, 22(5), 542-548. doi:10.1111/jsr.12049

Millman, R. P. (2005). Excessive sleepiness in adolescents and young adults: Causes, consequences, and treatment strategies.Pediatrics, 115(6), 1774. doi:10.1542/peds.2005-0772

Nathan, N., & Zeitzer, J. (2013). A survey study of the association between mobile phone use and daytime sleepiness in California high school students. BMC Public Health, 13(1), 1-5. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-840

Noland, H., Price, J. H., Dake, J., & Telljohann, S. K. (2009). Adolescents’ Sleep Behaviors and Perceptions of Sleep. Journal Of School Health, 79(5), 224-230. doi:10.1111/j.1746-1561.2009.00402.x

O’Brien, E. M., & Mindell, J. A. (2005). Sleep and Risk-Taking Behavior in Adolescents. Behavioral Sleep Medicine, 3(3), 113-133. doi:10.1207/s15402010bsm0303_1

Shin, C., Kim, J., Lee, S., Ahn, Y., & Joo, S. (2003). Sleep habits, excessive daytime sleepiness and school performance in high school students. Psychiatry & Clinical Neurosciences, 57(4), 451-453. doi:10.1046/j.1440-1819.2003.01146.x

Schaffhauser, Dian. Research: Early School Start Times Hurt Students, Hinder Performance — THE Journal. (2015, September 9). Retrieved October 19, 2015.

Teixeira, L. R., Lowden, A., Lemos Turte, S., Nagai, R., de Castro Moreno, C. R., Dias de Oliveira Latorre, M. R., & Fischer, F. M. (2007). Sleep and sleepiness among working and non-working high school evening students. Chronobiology International: The Journal Of Biological & Medical Rhythm Research, 24(1), 99-113. doi:10.1080/07420520601139763

Tzischinsky, O., & Shochat, T. (2011). Eveningness, sleep patterns, daytime functioning, and quality of life in Israeli adolescents.Chronobiology International: The Journal Of Biological & Medical Rhythm Research, 28(4), 338-343. doi:10.3109/07420528.2011.560698

Wolfson, A., & Carskadon, M. (1998). Sleep schedules and daytime functioning in adolescents. Child Development, 69(4), 875-887.

Yamamoto, R., Kaneita, Y., Harano, S., Yokoyama, E., Tamaki, T., Munezawa, T., & … Ohida, T. (2011). New onset and natural remission of excessive daytime sleepiness and its correlates among high-school students. Sleep & Biological Rhythms,9(2), 117-126. doi:10.1111/j.1479-8425.2011.00495.x

Abstracts:

Bergin, C. A., & Bergin, D. A. (2009). Sleep: The E-Z Z Z Intervention. Educational Leadership, 67(4), 44-47.

The article discusses the problem of sleep deprivation in school children. Children who do not get enough sleep, it notes, are more restless, irritable and impulsive. Sleep deprivation can also cause emotional disorders such as depression or anxiety as well as lower academic achievement. Studies, both correlational and prospective, are cited showing children with good sleep habits have higher grades than others. Adolescents get better grades if their weekday bedtime differs no more than two hours from their weekend bedtime. The article suggests that schools communicate with parents on the importance of enforcing a consistent bedtime, ensure that school activities end by 9:00p.m., and not assign homework that will keep students up late. It also suggests later start times for high schools.

Borlase, B. J., Gander, P. H., & Gibson, R. H. (2013). Effects of school start times and technology use on teenagers’ sleep: 1999-2008. Sleep & Biological Rhythms, 11(1), 46-54. doi:10.1111/sbr.12003

This study compared sleep patterns of high school students in 1999 and 2008. In 2006, school start times were delayed for senior students (years 12-13) from 09:00 to 10:30. For junior students (years 9-11), start time remained unchanged at 09:00. Questionnaires were completed at school by 212 year 9 and 12 students in 1999, and 455 year 9, 11 and 12 students in 2008. Year 12 students in 2008 were less likely to report sleep loss on school nights ( OR = 0.06, 95% CI = 0.01-0.11) and were less sleepy ( OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.34-0.98) than Year 12 in 1999 or than Year 11 in 2008, after controlling for gender (sleep loss, OR = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.19-0.53; sleepiness, OR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.28-0.75). There were no comparable changes for Year 9 students. From 1999-2008, students having technologies in the bedroom rose from 80.7% to 96.4% ( P( χ2) < 0.001). In 2008, having more technologies was associated with less sleep on school nights ( Spearman’s rho P = 0.005). In 2008, Year 9 students with more technologies were more likely to report daytime sleepiness ( OR = 4.06, 95% CI = 1.44-11.41) and being evening type ( OR = 3.38, 95% CI = 1.27-9.01), after controlling for gender. In 2008 all year groups went to bed earlier than in 1999, possibly due to increased sleep awareness, but only Year 12 students sleep later on school mornings. We conclude that delaying school start time had beneficial effects for Year 12 students, reducing sleep loss on school nights and daytime sleepiness. However, increased presence of technologies is associated with later sleep times and daytime sleepiness among Year 9 students.

Committee on Adolescence, and Council on School Health: Adolescent Sleep Working Group (2014).  School start times for adolescents. American Academy of Pediatrics. Pediatrics 2014;134;642; originally published online August 25, 2014; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2014-1697

The American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes insufficient sleep in adolescents as an important public health issue that significantly affects the health and safety, as well as the academic success, of our nation’s middle and high school students. Although a number of factors, including biological changes in sleep associated with puberty, lifestyle choices, and academic demands, negatively affect middle and high school students’ ability to obtain sufficient sleep, the evidence strongly implicates earlier school start times (ie, before 8:30 AM) as a key modifiable contributor to insufficient sleep, as well as circadian rhythm disruption, in this population. Furthermore, a substantial body of research has now demonstrated that delaying school start times is an effective countermeasure to chronic sleep loss and has a wide range of potential benefits to students with regard to physical and mental health, safety, and academic achievement. The American Academy of Pediatrics strongly supports the efforts of school districts to optimize sleep in students and urges high schools and middle schools to aim for start times that allow students the opportunity to achieve optimal levels of sleep (8.5–9.5 hours) and to improve physical (eg, reduced obesity risk) and mental (eg, lower rates of depression) health, safety (eg, drowsy driving crashes), academic performance, and quality of life.

Dewald-Kaufmann, J. F., Oort, F. J., Bögels, S. M., & Meijer, A. M. (2013). Why sleep matters: Differences in daytime functioning between adolescents with low and high chronic sleep reduction and short and long sleep durations. Journal Of Cognitive & Behavioral Psychotherapies, 13(1a), 171-182.

Sleep problems are prevalent in adolescents and can severely impair their daytime functioning. This study aims to investigate differences in daytime functioning (e.g., depressive symptoms, attention problems, school functioning, and school performance) between adolescents with high and low chronic sleep reduction and short and long sleep durations. With this approach we get a better idea of their vulnerability to impaired daytime functioning due to (chronic) sleep loss. From a total sample size of 794 adolescents, we selected the lowest and highest quartiles of adolescents with either low or high chronic sleep reduction and either short or long sleep durations. We found significant differences in daytime functioning between the different groups, giving evidence of vulnerability to impaired daytime functioning due to (chronic) sleep loss. The results are of high clinical relevance as they show that adolescents obtaining sufficient and/or good sleep show nearly no daytime functioning problems. Programs to improve adolescents’ sleep are therefore highly recommended

Gibson, E. S., Powles, A. P., Thabane, L., O’Brien, S., Molnar, D. S., Trajanovic, N., & … Chilcott-Tanser, L. (2006). “Sleepiness” is serious in adolescence: Two surveys of 3235 Canadian students. BMC Public Health, 6116-9. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-6-116

Evidence is growing that sleep problems in adolescents are significant impediments to learning and negatively affect behaviour, attainment of social competence and quality of life. The objectives of the study were to determine the level of sleepiness among students in high school, to identify factors to explain it, and to determine the association between sleepiness and performance in both academic and extracurricular activities Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 2201 high school students in the Hamilton Wentworth District School Board and the Near North District School Board in Ontario was conducted in 1998/9. A similar survey was done three years later involving 1034 students in the Grand Erie District School Board in the same Province. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) was used to measure sleepiness and we also assessed the reliability of this tool for this population. Descriptive analysis of the cohort and information on various measures of performance and demographic data were included. Regression analysis, using the generalised estimating equation (GEE), was utilized to investigate factors associated with risk of sleepiness (ESS>10). Results: Seventy per cent of the students had less than 8.5 hours weeknight sleep. Bedtime habits such as a consistent bedtime routine, staying up late or drinking caffeinated beverages before bed were statistically significantly associated with ESS, as were weeknight sleep quantity and gender. As ESS increased there was an increase in the proportion of students who felt their grades had dropped because of sleepiness, were late for school, were often extremely sleepy at school, and were involved in fewer extracurricular activities. These performance measures were statistically significantly associated with ESS. Twenty-three percent of the students felt their grades had dropped because of sleepiness. Most students (58-68%) reported that they were “really sleepy” between 8 and 10 A.M. Conclusion: Sleep deprivation and excessive daytime sleepiness were common in two samples of Ontario high school students and were associated with a decrease in academic achievement and extracurricular activity. There is a need to increase awareness of this problem in the education and health communities and to translate knowledge already available to strategies to address it.

Hansen, M., Janssen, I., Schiff, A., Zee, P. C., & Dubocovich, M. L. (2005). The impact of school daily schedule on adolescent sleepPediatrics, 115(6), 1555-1561. doi:10.1542/peds.2004-1649

Objectives. This study was initiated to examine the impact of starting school on adolescent sleep, to compare weekday and weekend sleep times, and to attempt to normalize the timing of the circadian sleep/wake cycle by administering bright light in the morning. This was a collaborative project involving high school students and their parents, as well as high school and university faculty members, for the purpose of contributing information to the scientific community while educating students about research processes and their own sleep/wake cycles and patterns. Methods. Sixty incoming high school seniors kept sleep/wake diaries beginning in August and continuing through 2 weeks after the start of school in September. Sleep diaries were also kept for 1 month in November and 1 month in February. Early-morning light treatments were given to 19 students in the last 2 weeks of November and the last 2 weeks of February. Neuropsychologic performance was measured with computer-administered tests. Paper-and-pencil tests were used for assessment of mood and vigor. A testing period consisted of 2 consecutive days at the beginning and end of November and at the beginning and end of February. Tests were given 3 times per day, ie, in the morning before school (6:30 – 8:00 AM), during midday lunch periods (11:30 AM to 1:00 PM), and in the afternoon (3:00 – 4:30 PM), on each of the test days. Results. Adolescents lost as much as 120 minutes of sleep per night during the week after the start of school, and weekend sleep time was also significantly longer (∼ minutes) than that seen before the start of school (August). No significant differences were found between weekday sleep in the summer and weekend sleep during the school year. Early-morning light treatments did not modify total minutes of sleep per night, mood, or computer-administered vigilance test results. All students performed better in the afternoon than in the morning. Students in early morning classes reported.

Langberg, J. M., Dvorsky, M. R., Marshall, S., & Evans, S. W. (2013). Clinical implications of daytime sleepiness for the academic performance of middle school-aged adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal Of Sleep Research, 22(5), 542-548. doi:10.1111/jsr.12049

This study investigated the relative impact of total time slept per night and daytime sleepiness on the academic functioning of 100 middle school-aged youth (mean age = 11.9) with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ( ADHD). The primary goal of the study was to determine if total time slept per night and/or daytime sleepiness, as measured by youth self-report on the Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale ( PDSS), predicted academic functioning above and beyond symptoms of ADHD and relevant covariates, such as intelligence, achievement scores and parent education level. Self-reported daytime sleepiness but not self-reported total time slept per night was associated significantly with all academic outcomes. When examined in a hierarchical regression model, self-reported daytime sleepiness significantly predicted parent-rated homework problems and academic impairment and teacher-rated academic competence above and beyond symptoms of ADHD and relevant covariates, but did not predict grade point average or teacher-rated academic impairment. The implications of these findings for understanding more clearly the association between ADHD and sleep and the functional implications of this relationship are discussed.

McGeorge, D. (2012, July). Sleepless in America : School start times. Education & Health. pp. 57-59.

The author reflects on the start times for U.S. school students and the impact of sleep deprivation on academic performance. He argues that a growing body of evidence is challenging school start times, adding that better student health, well-being and academic grades could be achieved with later start times. Topics include the amount of sleep required by adolescents, academic performance in students in the Minneapolis Public School District, and the complexities of changing school start times.

Millman, R. P. (2005). Excessive Sleepiness in Adolescents and Young Adults: Causes, Consequences, and Treatment Strategies.Pediatrics, 115(6), 1774. doi:10.1542/peds.2005-0772

Adolescents and young adults are often excessively sleepy. This excessive sleepiness can have a profound negative effect on school performance, cognitive function, and mood and has been associated with other serious consequences such as increased incidence of automobile crashes. In this article we review available scientific knowledge about normal sleep changes in adolescents (13 – 22 years of age), the factors associated with chronic insufficient sleep, the effect of insufficient sleep on a variety of systems and functions, and the primary sleep disorders or organic dysfunctions that, if untreated, can cause excessive daytime sleepiness in this population.

Nathan, N., & Zeitzer, J. (2013). A survey study of the association between mobile phone use and daytime sleepiness in California high school students. BMC Public Health, 13(1), 1-5. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-840

Background: Mobile phone use is near ubiquitous in teenagers. Paralleling the rise in mobile phone use is an equally rapid decline in the amount of time teenagers are spending asleep at night. Prior research indicates that there might be a relationship between daytime sleepiness and nocturnal mobile phone use in teenagers in a variety of countries. As such, the aim of this study was to see if there was an association between mobile phone use, especially at night, and sleepiness in a group of U.S. teenagers. Methods: A questionnaire containing an Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) modified for use in teens and questions about qualitative and quantitative use of the mobile phone was completed by students attending Mountain View High School in Mountain View, California (n = 211). Results: Multivariate regression analysis indicated that ESS score was significantly associated with being female, feeling a need to be accessible by mobile phone all of the time, and a past attempt to reduce mobile phone use. The number of daily texts or phone calls was not directly associated with ESS. Those individuals who felt they needed to be accessible and those who had attempted to reduce mobile phone use were also ones who stayed up later to use the mobile phone and were awakened more often at night by the mobile phone. Conclusions: The relationship between daytime sleepiness and mobile phone use was not directly related to the volume of texting but may be related to the temporal pattern of mobile phone use

Shin, C., Kim, J., Lee, S., Ahn, Y., & Joo, S. (2003). Sleep habits, excessive daytime sleepiness and school performance in high school students. Psychiatry & Clinical Neurosciences, 57(4), 451-453. doi:10.1046/j.1440-1819.2003.01146.x

A questionnaire survey was carried out to examine the sleep habits and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) of 3871 high school students with a mean age of 16.8 years in Korea. The results showed that mean total sleep time was 6.3 h/day for male students and 6.5 h/day for female students, which may be insufficient for adolescence during puberty. The overall prevalence of EDS (defined as an Epworth sleepiness scale score of >10) was 15.9% (14.9% for boys and 18.2% for girls). The prevalence of EDS increased significantly (P < 0.001) with a decline in school performance.

Teixeira, L. R., Lowden, A., Lemos Turte, S., Nagai, R., de Castro Moreno, C. R., Dias de Oliveira Latorre, M. R., & Fischer, F. M. (2007). Sleep and sleepiness among working and non-working high school evening students. Chronobiology International: The Journal Of Biological & Medical Rhythm Research, 24(1), 99-113. doi:10.1080/07420520601139763

The aim of this study was to evaluate patterns of sleepiness, comparing working and non-working students. The study was conducted on high school students attending evening classes (19:00–22:30 h) at a public school in São Paulo, Brazil. The study group consisted of working (n=51) and non-working (n=41) students, aged 14–21 yrs. The students answered a questionnaire about working and living conditions and reported health symptoms and diseases. For seven consecutive days, actigraphy measurements were recorded, and the students also filled in a sleep diary. Sleepiness ratings were given six times per day, including upon waking and at bedtime, using the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale. Statistical analyses included three-way ANOVA and t-test. The mean sleep duration during weekdays was shorter among workers (7.2 h) than non-workers (8.8 h) (t=4.34; p<.01). The mean duration of night awakenings was longer among workers on Tuesdays and Wednesdays (28.2 min) and shorter on Mondays (24.2 min) (t=2.57; p=.03). Among workers, mean napping duration was longer on Mondays and Tuesdays (89.9 min) (t=2.27; p=.03) but shorter on Fridays and Sundays (31.4 min) (t=3.13; p=.03). Sleep efficiency was lower on Fridays among non-workers. Working students were moderately sleepier than non-workers during the week and also during class on specific days: Mondays (13:00–15:00 h), Wednesdays (19:00–22:00 h), and Fridays (22:00–00:59 h). The study found that daytime sleepiness of workers is moderately higher in the evening. This might be due to a work effect, reducing the available time for sleep and shortening the sleep duration. Sleepiness and shorter sleep duration can have a negative impact on the quality of life and school development of high school students.

Tzischinsky, O., & Shochat, T. (2011). Eveningness, sleep patterns, daytime functioning, and quality of life in Israeli adolescents.Chronobiology International: The Journal Of Biological & Medical Rhythm Research, 28(4), 338-343. doi:10.3109/07420528.2011.560698

The purpose of the study was to assess the relationships between eveningness, sleep patterns, measures of daytime functioning, i.e., sleepiness, sleep problem behaviors, and depressed mood, and quality of life (QOL) in young Israeli adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was performed in urban and rural middle schools in Northern Israel. Participants were 470 eighth and ninth grade middle school students (14 ±± 0.8 yrs of age) in the normative school system. Students completed the modified School Sleep Habits Survey (SSHS) and Pediatric Quality ofLife Inventory Short Form, assessing six subscales of physical, emotional, social, school performance, and psychosocial functioning, plus an addition generated total score. During weekdays and weekends, evening types went to bed later, their sleep latency was longer, their wake-up time was later, and their sleep duration was shorter than intermediate and morning types. Evening types exhibited more sleep problem behaviors, sleepiness, depressed mood, and lower QOL compared to intermediate and morning types. Based on the regression model, sleepiness, sleep-problem behaviors, and depressed mood were the variables most strongly associated with QOL, followed by morning-evening preference, weekday sleep duration, and weekend sleep latency. This study is the first to assess QOL in normative, healthy adolescents and to demonstrate strong associations between morning-evening preference and QOL. These findings enhance the need to identify young individuals with an evening preference, and to be aware of the characteristics and manifestations of the evening chronotype on daytime and nighttime behaviors in adolescence.

Vedaa, Ø., West Saxvig, I., Wilhelmsen-Langeland, A., Bjorvatn, B., & Pallesen, S. (2012). School start time, sleepiness and functioning in Norwegian adolescents. Scandinavian Journal Of Educational Research, 56(1), 55-67. doi:10.1080/00313831.2011.567396

The study’s aim was to investigate how school start time affects sleepiness and functioning in Norwegian 10th grade students (N = 106). The intervention school started at 0930 hours on Mondays and 0830 hours the rest of the week. A control school started at 0830 hours all schooldays. The students were assessed on a reaction time test as well as with self-report measures of sleepiness, mood and sleep. The intervention school obtained one hour longer total sleep time on Sunday nights compared to the control school and performed better on the reaction time test on Mondays than on Fridays, relative to the control school. Later school start times may both lengthen nocturnal sleep and increase students’ alertness in early morning classes.

Wolfson, A. R., & Carskadon, M. A. (2005). Meeting teen sleep needs creatively. Education Digest, 71(1), 47-51.

This article discusses the adjustment of school schedules to meet the sleep needs of teenagers. High school personnel were surveyed on high school start times, factors influencing school start times, and decision making around school schedules. Surveys were analyzed from secondary schools selected at random from the National Center for Educational Statistics database. The final data set includes 345 surveys from regular public schools serving grades 9-12 for which data at least back to the 1986-87 school year were available. Of the respondents, 49% noted their students came from a comfortable socioeconomic background; 34% were struggling or impoverished; and nearly 13% had most of their students from well off, or affluent, families.

Wolfson, A. R., Spaulding, N. L., Dandrow, C., & Baroni, E. M. (2007). Middle school start times: The importance of a good night’s sleep for young adolescents. Behavioral Sleep Medicine, 5(3), 194-209. doi:10.1080/15402000701263809

With the onset of adolescence, teenagers require 9.2 hr of sleep and experience a delay in the timing of sleep. In the “real world” with early school start times, however, they report less sleep, striking differences between their school-weekend sleep schedules, and significant daytime sleepiness. Prior studies demonstrated that high schoolers with later school starts do not further delay bedtimes but obtain more sleep due to later wake times. This study examined sleep—wake patterns of young adolescents attending urban, public middle schools with early (7:15 a.m.) versus late (8:37 a.m.) start times. Students (N = 205) were assessed at 2 time periods. Students at the late-starting school reported waking up over 1 hr later on school mornings and obtaining 50 min more sleep each night, less sleepiness, and fewer tardies than students at the early school. All students reported similar school-night bedtimes, sleep hygiene practices, and weekend sleep schedules.

Yamamoto, R., Kaneita, Y., Harano, S., Yokoyama, E., Tamaki, T., Munezawa, T., & … Ohida, T. (2011). New onset and natural remission of excessive daytime sleepiness and its correlates among high-school students. Sleep & Biological Rhythms,9(2), 117-126. doi:10.1111/j.1479-8425.2011.00495.x

Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is highly prevalent among high-school students, and preventative measures against it are essential for promotion of school health. With the aim of studying both the onset and amelioration of EDS and the factors that can predict these changes during the period at high school, we conducted a series of longitudinal surveys using self-administered questionnaires. Surveys of studentsfrom three private high schools in Tokyo were conducted three times in November of each year, starting in 2007, when the subjects were in the 10th grade, and ending in 2009, when they were in the 12th grade. Of 1198 eligible students, 865 (effective response rate, 72.75%: 472 boys, 393 girls) were included in the analysis. The Japanese version of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale was used to assess their level of EDS, which was defined as being present when the total score was >10. Among 489 individuals who did not have EDS in the 10th grade, the cumulative incidence rate was 32.7% (95%CI: 29.6-35.8%) over 2 years. In addition, the natural remission rate among 376 individuals who reported having EDS in the 10th grade was 39.4% (95CI: 36.1-42.7%). From the results of logistic regression analysis, ‘having sleep disturbance’ and ‘not doing light exercise or gymnastics as a sleep-promoting practice’ were extracted as the factors that predict the onset of EDS, whereas ‘not taking a nap during the weekend’ was extracted as the factor that predicts the natural remission of EDS.